Palmyra Kingdom      
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(Text by Duane R. Hurst © 2013)

Click on a link to view its information and pictures.
Significant Event:
    Famous Way Station for Caravans
    Flourished under Roman Control

Main Cities: Palmyra (Pictures); Sela
Time: 1200-800 BC
Language: Aramaic; Greek
Personage: Solomon; Zenobia
Religion: Palmyra Gods
Related Country: Syria

Brief History:
      I have included only a few items concerning the history of this kingdom. A good source for more details can be found on Wikipedia or in history books.

Map of Palmyra Kingdom
Click Map to Enlarge
      Anciently, Palmyra was an important caravan city that was mentioned in the archives of Mari. It often retained autonomy in the midst of more powerful states and empires. The Hebrew Bible (Second Chronicles 8:4) mentioned that King Solomon of Israel fortified the city. The Seleucid Empire conquered Syria in 323 BC, but allowed Palmyra to retain independence. The city largely was nomadic until circa 50 AD, when it became an elegant city and became part of the Roman Empire.

      Between 260 and 273 AD, Queen Zenobia ruled the short-lived, splinter Palmyrene Empire, with a capital at Palmyra. She was able to gain territory after soldiers murdered the Roman emperor, Alexander Severus, and the Sassanid Empire defeated Roman legions. In 258 AD, the Roman Empire fragmented into three major components, one being the Palmyrene Empire.

      Governor Lucius Septimius Odaenathus used his forces to resist Sassanid incursions. A nephew murdered Odaenathus and his son, but Zenobia (a second wife) ruled in the name of young son, Vaballathus. In 270 AD, Aurelian became the Roman emperor and recovered eastern territory. His forces defeated general Zabdas (a former slave who commanded Zenobia's army) in the battles of Immae and Emesa (aka Homs).

© Page Publisher: Duane R. Hurst