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(Text by Duane R. Hurst © 2013)

Click on a link to view its information and pictures.
Significant Event:
    Triumph Over Golden Horde

Main Cities: Isfahan; Samarkand
Time: 1370-1507 AD
Language: Old Persian; Turkish
Personage: Timur
Religion: Islam
Related Country: Iran; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan

Brief History:
      I have included only a few items concerning the history of this empire. A good source for more details can be found on Wikipedia or in history books.

Map of Mari Empire
Click Map to Enlarge
      The Barlas tribe originally was part of Genghis Khan's army. They settled an area known as Moghulistan (modern Kazakhstan) and adopted much of the Persian culture.

      In 1363 AD, Timur (aka Tamurlane) began a series of conquests. He envisioned a restoration of the Mongol Empire, with a twist that he also considered himself to be the "Sword of Islam." Early exploits included subjugation of Transoxiana, Khwarezmian Empire, Khorasan, and the Chagatai Khanate. He likewise captured Isfahan in 1387 AD and Baghdad in 1393 AD. Timur then triumphed over the Kingdom of Georgia and the Golden Horde. He later captured Smyrna, stronghold of the Hospitallers.

      His forces later destroyed Baghdad in 1401 AD. The following year Timur won the Battle of Ankara, routing an army from Moravian Serbia, Ottoman Turks and Wallachia.

      Timur was notorious for leaving pyramids of skulls in cities that defied his forces. One such heinous action occurred after his attack on Delhi in modern India. Scholars estimate that his armies killed approximately 17 million people (5% of the world's population). By 1500 AD Timur's empire was divided from internal strife. He died in 1405 AD. Babur, a descendant of Genghis Khan, established the Mughal Empire in 1526 AD.

© Page Publisher: Duane R. Hurst