The subsequent ruler, Oleg of Novgorod, founded the
Kievan Rus state in 882 AD. The state disintegrated during invasions
of the Mongols between 1237 and 1240 AD. Moscow eventually dominated
the region and was the nucleus for the Russian Empire. Prince Dmitri of Moscow defeated the
Golden Horde of Mamai at
Kulikovo Field on 8 September 1380 AD, which was a
turning point for Muscovite power against Mongol invaders.
PETER THE GREAT:
Tsar Peter is credited with forming the Russian Empire in 1721 AD. He modernized Russia, despite heavy resistance from
landed nobility, peasants and the Russian Orthodox church. The state continued as an absolute monarchy until a revolution
in 1905 AD, which resulted in a constitutional monarchy until a revolution in February 1917 AD. Russian
participation in World War I led to general discontent and rioting. Tsar Nicholas II was deposed and executed, leading to
a struggle for power between White Russian and Communist forces. The Communists defeated their opponents and formed the
In October 1853 AD, Russia declared war with the
Ottomans and attempted to seize the
Crimean peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion in the
region, a coalition (Britain, France and Sardinia) helped the
Ottomans. Russian forces destroyed an Ottoman fleet at Sinop,
but eventually lost a fortress at Sevastopol in the
battle of Malakoff in September 1855 AD.
The Black Sea became a neutral area.
A British "Charge of the Light Brigade"
during the battle of Balaclava was immortalized.