Facsimiles: Book of Abraham

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NOTES: (Duane R. Hurst, October 2002)

FORWARD:     I am aware that many members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) doubt the veracity of Joseph Smith Junior's "translation" from Egyptian hieroglyphs, including the facsimiles found in the Book of Abraham. Today various LDS general authorities prefer to believe Egyptologist detractors rather than give credence to Joseph's God-given gift to reveal Abraham's lost writings. Even at a young age I desired to know the meaning of those hieroglyphs. So, I spent much time learning to understand and translate the facsimile hieroglyphs. After doing so in English (see below), I later translated them into Thai (see Item 1 and Item 2) and a friend did the Japanese translation. My latest translations in 2018 were in French, German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.
      It is obvious to anyone trained in reading such hieroglyphs that Joseph did not translate the Book of Abraham from papyri that early LDS members purchased while in Kirtland, Ohio. They clearly indicate portions of an Egyptian Book of the Dead. However, what too many people refuse to recognize is that the papyri merely served as a catalyst for Joseph to receive a direct revelation into the original writings of Abraham. An Egyptian Book of the Dead was a corrupted mishmash of original teachings from Adam down to subsequent patriarchs, such as Abraham.
      As for Joseph's interpretation of figures from the hypocephalus (facsimile 2), he was correct. Critics should note that he used terms such as "signify", "represent" and "called" when he "translated" figures and symbols on that hypocephalus. He did not translate the hieroglyphs. Rather, he said they "Ought not to be revealed at the present time" and "will be given in the own due time of the Lord." My attitude for many years was: That was for Joseph's time, but not necessarily for my time. That is why I and others have studied and translated those hieroglyphs. It also should be noted that mention of pharaoh Sheshonq I on facsimile 2 does not negate validity of the hypocephalus. Yes, he lived many years after Abraham. However, the hypocephalus likely was a later copy of one originally made in the time of Abraham. Common practice was for a scribe to change an owner's name, while retaining much of the hieroglyphic writing. The "new" hypocephalus would then be used in the owner's funeral by placing it under his head.
      Critics who do not make an effort to learn the hieroglyphs, and are content to let other people dictate meanings to them, are not competent to criticize Joseph Smith's work. As for Egyptologists who smugly berate his efforts, their criticism reflects on their pomposity and refusal to seek enlightenment from God.

Facsimile 2 represents "Process of life from highest to lowest realms". Hypocephalus = Greek term for "Under the Head". Egyptians called it [hry-tp] "Heat the Head". It was designed to assist a dead person in using key words for entry into the eternal realm. A hypocephalus also represents "One Eternal Round".

Egyptians also called it the "Pupil of the Eye of Osiris". Osiris was an Egyptian god who represented the Savior; originally taught by Adam and other patriarchs such as Noah to his sons: Ham; Japeth; Shem. They in turn taught the gospel message to their posterity. Through the ages, the true plan of life and role of Jesus Christ became distorted and resulted in false gods and dogmatic nonsense.

NOTE: This is key to understanding the relationship between information taught in the temple endowment and doctrine revealed in D&C sections 84 and 88. It also helps explain the meaning of keeping an eye single to God's glory. Likewise, it represents how the pupil acts as a window to the eye/mind/soul. Light/knowledge of truth enters the eye; reflects on the eye's cones and rods; images are inverted and transmitted to the brain, which correctly interprets the true image; this allows the soul to expand in knowledge and power.

The top 2/3 of this hypocephalus represents the eternal or heavenly realm; the bottom 1/3 represents the earthly. It is shown upside down because the Egyptians consider earth life a mirror of heaven.
Translation of Numbers 12-15 Translation of Item A Translation of Item B Translation of Number 21 Translation of Number 20 Translation of Number 19 Translation of Number 2 Translation of Number 3 Translation of Number 18 Translation of Number 18 Translation of Number 17 Translation of Number 16 Translation of Number 8 Translation of Number 9 Translation of Number 10 Translation of Number 11
Duane Hurst translated these hieroglyphs into the following languages:
French; German; Italian; Japanese; Portuguese; Spanish; Thai (1); Thai (2)

Compare this with a Hypocephalus in a Netherlands museum.

Figures 5-7 represent a reversal of entropy/death; represents a negentropic view (ongoing expansion of life)

Figure 1

Kolob = star nearest God's celestialized planet; heart (controls the universe)
- qalb means "heart, center, middle" in Arabic (term for very bright stars)
- qlb means "middle, midst, to draw near" in Hebrew
- m-qab means "in the midst of" in Egyptian
Kolob is holding the symbol of dominion (was). Three important symbols are: life (ankh); dominion (was); stability (djed)
Meanings of the above symbols according to Hugh Nibley in 1988-1990:
Ankh = Health in the navel
Was  = Marrow in the bones
Djed  = Authority/power in the priesthood

Two-headed figure indicates that God can see past/future and represents his hidden and mysterious power. Goat horns on the head symbolize God's fecundity in creating posterity throughout all eternity. Jackals on his shoulders represent wep-wawet, the "Opener of the Way" (Jesus Christ, who opened the path out of death and hell).

Signifies primeval waters; "before creation".
Meaning: "Spirit of God rippling the waters."

NOTE: Djam scepter (the sign of "preservation") above the following:

Signifies: "Irrigated Land"

Signifies: "Ability; Force"

Signifies: "One Cubit" Arm raised to the square; one day to the cubit.

Baboon figures with upraised hands commonly represented Thoth, god of writing and wisdom; they also are associated with the sun due to their habit of warming their hands in the morning light. In this picture the hands indicate receiving borrowed light from Kolob. Both baboons have symbols of the cow horns and disk on their heads. (Horns of Hathor -- the Sun; Aah -- the Moon.) A snake is between each baboon and Kolob; probably indicates Apep god of chaos. Or it could represent the cobra "Iru-To" (Egyptian symbol of earth's creator). Greeks called it Uraeus (iaret in Egyptian): the cobra symbolized divine authority and was a symbol for Wadjet.

Jah-oh-eh = Egyptian word for our Earth. Joseph Smith (in the "Times & Seasons") defined this as "O the Earth" (aka "Yah-oh-eh"). Egyptian language: = "O Earth"
Note: Egyptian = bread and pyramid; ta khut = light. Both are used in Khufu's (AKA Cheop's) Pyramid to represent Jesus Christ ("bread of life and light of heaven"; also "mediator between Earth and God"). See D&C 88:6-13

"One day to a cubit" (one Kolob day = 1,000 Earth years). Orson Pratt spoke about the relationship between cubit and light a/w celestial travel. Duane Hurst: "We cannot measure celestial physical laws with telestial devises."
Earth cubit:
1. Egyptian Royal Cubit = One 10 millionth of the distance from north or south pole to center of the Earth (25.0265 inches). Earth's mean polar radius = 3949.89 miles or 250,265,030.4 inches.
2. Egyptian Sacred Cubit = 10 to the 3rd power X the square root of pi divided by (4 x 365.24235+) Royal cubits.
3. Pyramid Inch = 1/25th of Royal Cubit (1.00106 inch); ancient Hebrew and English measurement still used today). Used inside Khufu's Pyramid to indicate future events (1 inch = 1 year). Stonehenge in England reportedly was built within 100 years after the pyramids and used the same system of measurement.
4. Egyptian Aroura = a square of 100 Royal cubits; Aroura = one Earth year (area of a circle whose circumference in the number of Pyramid Inches = 10 x total days in Earth's mean Solar tropical year).

CLUE: Cubit & hand raised to the square is significant in understanding this concept. The Earth's circle shown above = 365. 24235+ days; Kolob's circle = 1,000 of Earth's years. Both systems are based on the cubit. This helps explain how angels travel via light instantly, such as Joseph's description of Moroni. (NOTE: Angel means a messenger from God. Ancient Christians correctly depicted them without wings. The notion of wings started in the middle ages when people believed nothing could fly without having wings. Moroni had a beard, as early pictures always portrayed.)

In his Grammar and Alphabet of the Egyptian Language (unpublished by LDS Church, but in the archives), Joseph stated 1 cubit of time = 3 days; a cubit of motion increases or decreases according to the sign of the degrees. Kli-flos-is-es (Hah-ko-kau-beam) = Kolob in its motion; being first in motion. Measurement for Kli-flos-is-es = 24 cubits (72 days).

Figure 2

Two-headed figure indicates that God can see past/future and represents his hidden and mysterious power. Jackals on his shoulders and the jackal standard represent wep-wawet, the "Opener of the Way" (Jesus Christ). Maat feathers on head indicate justice. Ointment jar on table indicates kingship. (This also appears in Facsimile 1, Abraham in Egypt.) Goat horns on the head symbolize God's fecundity in creating posterity throughout all eternity. Green Sobek (crocodile) represents resurrection of the body; green is the color of rejuvenation. Translation of hieroglyphs: "The Name of this Mighty God."

Figure 3

Note staff in left hand, so that right hand can be raised to the square. Staff = wep-wawet, he (jackal or hunting dog) who opens the way/begins the Year [according to Hugh Nibley; Michael Rhodes calls it a "was" scepter (symbol of dominion)]. Represents Jesus Christ, who opens the path from physical and spiritual death to eternal life with God. God is sitting on his throne , which is the hieroglyph for "temple". (Note the "holy of Holies" - box within a box)

Wadjet-Eye = All seeing eye of God (divine wisdom; foreknowledge; priesthood power); indicates full knowledge of the endowment and all measurements/orbits/power a/w controlling planets, stars and galaxies. Refers to goddess Wadjet; it also represents the right eye of Rah (the Sun). The top left eye symbolizes the Moon (Rah's left eye).
- A lotus blossom is in the bow of the boat (represents peace & life); the boat represents God can travel throughout his heavenly realm. Red and white of lotus represent Life and Death; East and West; Blood and No Blood. That also is why Jesus Christ is depicted wearing red and white; He overcame death through the atonement and resurrection.
- 15 stars in the boat represent the 15 governing stars (see Figure 4)
Translation of hieroglyphs: "Divine ship." (God's boat)
on back of head = Wings symbolize the "First Mystery of All Mysteries". They also represent the Grand Presidency in heaven.

Figure 4

Sokar-boat (used to represent revolutions of the sun and other celestial bodies) Sokar (AKA Seker) was the Egyptian falcon god, closely associated with Osiris and Ptah (god of creation). Notice the Phoenix [AKA Bennu-Bird] sits in this boat. Egyptians believed this bird burst into flames each 1,000 years and symbolized a rejuvenation or resurrection. It likely represented a new millennium and dispensation. Likewise, it symbolized a new day for God (because 1,000 earth years equals one day for Kolob).
     Nibley said it also was called a Chonsu (Crouching Bird), meaning "He Who Traverses". It represented passage of a heavenly body in space.

NOTE: Dots on boat = 15 governing stars (also on figure 3 boat) Joseph Smith provided the following names of these stars (see Grammar):
- Kolob; Oliblish; Enish-go-on-dosh; Kae-e-vanrash; Limdi; Zip; Vusel; Venisti; Waine; Wayoh-ox-oan; Oansli; Sheble; Shineflis; Flis; Os.

HURST NOTE: Egyptian names for the 15 "planets" are: Oanisis; Flosisis; Floese; Abbesels; Eleash; Subble; Slundlo; Carroam; Crashmakraw; Obblesisim; Izinsbah; Missel; Nahmesile; Oheeoopzah; Zool

Meaning of certain names:
- Ahman = Man of Holiness (Moses 6:57)
- Son Ahman = Son of Ahman (Jesus Christ; DC 78:20 and DC 95:17)
- Jah-ni-hah = Jehovah (see Grammar); hah = related to water
- Adam-ondi-Ahman = Adam before God (Adam in the presence of God) See Picture.
- Ah meh-strah = Egypt (see Grammar); Mizraim in Hebrew
- Egyptus = Forbidden; daughter of Ham and Zeptah; discovers Egypt and brings honeybees to start new life
- Kli-flos-is-es = Kolob in its motion
- Melchizedek = Shem, son of Noah
- Oliblish = Center of Kli-flos-is-es; Egyptians thought it was Rigel in Orion constellation
- Olishem = Hill of Heaven
- Potipher's hill = Hill of Re's Appointed
- Shagre-el = God Rah (Re); represents our Sun and Sirius (Dog Star)
- Zeptah = Wife of Ham (see Grammar)

Figure 5

Enish-go-on-dosh = our sun (cow Hathor represents Eve); Maat feathers
Floeese = our moon (figure of Egyptian goddess Wadjet, who holds a lotus blossom that represents daily/annual renewal of the sun). Red and white of lotus represent Life and Death; East and West.
Hah-ko-kau-beam (Hebrew has a similar term, which means "the stars")
Kae-e-vanrash = Governing Power; Grand Key; Melchizedek Priesthood (Nibley said it means: "Exalted one who opens at the call.") Principle of energy and control; priesthood power in action (AKA nature).

Figure 6
Also shown in facsimile 1:

Significant representations of these four canopic jars:
1.  4 seasons (fall; winter; spring; summer)
2.  4 figures--Egypt (hawk; jackal; ape; human)
3.  4 figures-Revelations 4:7 (eagle; lion; calf; man)
4.  4 gods-Egyptian (Horus; Anubis; Hapi; Pharaoh)
5.  4 gods-Abraham (Elkenah; Libnah; Mahmackrah; Korash)
     - Elkenah = El Kinah (god of Canaan); El = God; Kinah = Canaan (AKA Hurrian people)
     - Libnah = White Land (modern Libya due to light-skinned and haired people in ancient times; Lebanon also was called a white land due to snow on mountains)
     - Mahmackrah = Mighty like Rah (Re); sun god of Egypt
     - Korash = Cush (modern Sudan; Nubia = modern Sudan; Punt = modern Ethiopia)
6.  4 peoples (Desert; Libya; Palestine & Syria; Nubia/Cush)
7.  4 internal organs (stomach; intestines; lungs; liver)
8.  4 directions (east; west; north; south)
9.  4 elements of creation (fire; wind; water; earth)
10. 4 constellations: Leo (fire); Aquarius (air); Scorpius (water); Taurus (earth)
11. 4 colors (red; white; blue; green)
Note: Djed represents red/desert/honey bee. Its symbol = English "desert" is from this Egyptian word. "Sir" also is derived from ancient Egyptian, which is a term of honor for a superior.
12. 4 stars in Big Dipper constellation; Egyptian names for the stars: dwamft; qbhsnwf; hpy; imsty
13. 4 winds (east; west; north; south)
14. 4 sons of Horus (falcon-headed god of Egypt)
15. 4 spirits
16. 4 quarters (commonly used to divide land and a city in ancient times) Egyptian surveyors atop a pyramid made measurements after each flooding of the Nile River to determine property boundaries. This system for quartering the land and cities was used by Nephites and Lamanites. They also referred to land as Up and Down, due to the mountainous terrain.

      - Elkenah: Sun Rise = Blood = Life; this is why brides anciently wore red in a wedding.
      - Libnah: Sun Set = No Blood = Death; this is why people wore white at funerals.
        Brides began wearing white after Jesus Christ atoned for mankind and resurrected. It also symbolized his triumph over death, His blood thus freeing the righteous and sealing those married under His ordinances and covenant to enjoy an eternal marriage. White originally did not represent purity; that later became an accepted symbolism.

Figure 6
Three symbols (gods of the Sun) adjacent the 4 "seasons"
1. Lotus = Khepri (rising sun). Also as: Scarab Beetle
2. Lion   = Atum (setting sun). Also as: Old man leaning on stick
3. Ram   = Re (midday sun). Also as: Hawk

These also represent the biological cycle ("food chain"): vegetation eaten by herbivore; herbivore eaten by carnivore; carnivore dies and rots, out of the lion carcass comes new life via the honeybee.

Figure 7

Min = First and most powerful Egyptian god (Ammon derives from Min). Feathers on his back represent wings and Grand Presidency in Heaven (see crown on Abraham's head in facsimile 3 -- similar meaning). Min also represents the one who opens the way for all others (shows a close affinity between Father and Son). Nibley claimed this figure represented Father in the form of a dove or the "First mystery of all other mysteries." Min receives the Wadjet-Eye, symbol of divine authority and the Full Endowment.
HURST NOTE: This may indicate that the Father previously served as a "Holy Spirit" and "Savior". It clarifies what Joseph Smith said in his King Follett discourse: "...as the Father hath power in himself, even so hath the Son power...to lay down my life as my Father did, and take it up again."

Egyptians also honored Min as Ham, the first man who settled Egypt at Coptus. Egyptian pictures and writings are full of multiple meanings. In this case, Joseph Smith gave the correct designations for symbols, which Egyptologists long misinterpreted.

Arrow-shape behind the head is a flail (Nehaha) in his hand; it indicates power and authority. It also represents Nehahr or creative power obtained via the ultimate endowment.

Note: Upraised "hands", which may indicate a key in the endowment ceremony.

Kha = Egyptian symbol for spirit. Arms equate to sun rays; hill of earth is centered between them.
Note: Dove is presenting a Wadjet-Eye, which holds the secret behind all measurements. It represents obtainment of procreative power or ultimate endowment and fullness of knowledge.

Figures 12 - 15:
These are hieratic text, not hieroglyphs. They later were copied from Joseph Smith papyrus XI and refer to a little Breathing Permit.

TRANSLATION: (by Duane Hurst) Hieroglyphs in Figures 2-3; 8-11; 15-21

2.             The name of that Mighty God.
3.             God's boat.
8-11        Oh God of the Sleeping Ones in creation, chief/head Mighty God, Lord of heaven, earth, hell, and the mighty/great waters -- give life to the soul of Osiris Sheshaq.
16-17      Never desecrate (this) tomb; never desecrate this soul or his lord in the hereafter.
19-21      Behold you (shall) be as/of that God, the Busirian.
18            I am the God who provides in the Sun Temple in On. (I am) an exalted, glorious, virile bull without equal. (I am) that Mighty God (who gives) offerings in the Sun Temple in On. Grant that Osiris Sheshaq live forever with that Mighty God in On.

Busirian = Busiris was ancient Egypt's center for human sacrifice. This was where "beds" were first designed to kill a substitute for Pharaoh during the new year scapegoat ritual. Egyptian priests intended to make Abraham a substitute "Pharaoh for the Day" and offer his life in the atonement ritual. This was a corruption of Christ's atonement, which teaching originated with Adam's instruction to his descendants. Osiris was also known as "Lord of Busiris".
Heliopolis = On (Egyptians called the city ) Chief religious city of Egypt. Abraham taught Pharaoh here; Joseph "sold into Egypt" married Asenath, whose father was chief priest of On; Moses once lived here; Mary and Joseph took baby Jesus here to escape King Herod because a large community of Jews lived here. It also was the location where the "reformed" (Demotic) Egyptian shorthand writing system was developed, the one Lehi and Nephi studied. Greek name for On = Heliopolis (city of the sun).

Heliopolis also represented the Pleiades, to which the Leo Constellation pointed. In a 70-day cycle that also involved the Nile River, ancient Egyptian adepts could predict when the river would flood. In essence, as the Sun appeared to move across the sky from Heliopolis across the Nile towards Leo, so it mirrored the Sun's movement from the Pleiades across the Milky Way band of stars towards Leo. Likewise, measurement from the three pyramids at Giza (that represented the three stars in Orion Constellation) gave a represented measurement between the Pleiades and Leo.

This movement of tbe Sun was significant concerning the following ancient Egyptian cycles: Sothic; Yearly; Zodiac Great Year.

Osiris = Egyptian god (similar actions/attributes to Jesus Christ)

Sheshaq = Name of several Pharaohs of Egypt (XXI dynasty), who lived much later than the time of Abraham. Sheshonq I (Sheshaq) sacked Jerusalem in 926 BC and carried the temple implements to On.

TRANSLATION: (by Michael Rhodes) Hieroglyphs in Figures 2-3; 8-11; 15-21

8-11   O God of the Sleeping Ones from the time of the creation. O Mighty God, Lord of heaven and earth, of the hereafter [Hurst: This should read "hell" as it represents Egyptian "duat"], and of his great waters. May the Soul of the Osiris Sheshaq be granted life.
16-17 May this tomb never be desecrated, and may this soul and its lord never be desecrated in the hereafter.
19-21 You shall ever be as that God, the Busirian.
18       I am the Provider in the Sun Temple in Heliopolis. I am most exalted and very glorious. I am a virile bull without equal. I am that Mighty God in the Sun Temple of Heliopolis. May the Osiris Sheshaq live forever with that Mighty God in Heliopolis.

NOTE: Item 16 in facsimile 2 has a hieroglyph that contains "eternity" elements, which include "hell" (star of contained radiance) and the 3 "kingdoms". Rhodes' translation of "hereafter" is too restrictive.

Notes about Facsimile 1:

--   Horus (hawk) can be viewed to represent Jesus Christ.
--   Seth (Egyptian god of death) can be viewed to represent Satan.
--   Sobek (crocodile god) also represented Ptah, father to Egyptian gods. Thus, it could represent God the Father. English "father" is derived from Ptah.
--   Item number 11 (Pillars of Heaven): There are 12 doors. 5 and 12 are common numbers of importance to Egyptians and Hebrews. Pyramids contain the 5 pillars: each corner (NEWS = North; East; West; South) and the central pillar. These also represent the five points of fellowship. 12 is important to Hebrews to represent the tribes of Israel; Egyptians thought it auspicious, as it indicated a multiple of the trinity and 4 pillars. 5 usually was the number that Egyptians chose to represent the pillars of heaven.
--   Number 12 represents water/firmament. The Egyptian artist failed to remove the guidelines after drawing the "water".
--   Egyptian artists followed a prescribed pattern to depict mortals in right profile and deity/royalty in left profile.
--   Figures 5-8 = Idolatrous gods of Elkenah; Libnah; Mahmackrah; Korash.
--   Figure 10 = Abraham in Egypt (Click on link to view details).

Figure 3:
- Isis = Sirius (Egyptians called this "Dog Star": Sopdet)
- Maat = Eve
- Priest of Elkenah = Horus (Orion)
- Osiris = Jesus Christ
Note that Sobek, crocodile god of Pharaoh , was located within the water at the bottom of facsimile 1. There was a close association with Busiris and human sacrifice. Egyptians believed Sobek ate the victim, brought him to the west bank, regurgitated the body and helped in its resurrection. This action was part of the new year ritual, wherein Pharaoh "died" for the sins of his people and came back as a resurrected king after receiving help from Sobek. This was a corruption of Christ's atonement and resurrection, as originally taught by Adam and subsequent prophets.

Facsimile 3 Translation of Number 5 Translation of Bottom Characters Translation of Number 1 Translation of Number 4 Translation of Number 2

Pillars of Heaven and stars appear at the top of this facsimile. The scene is similar to the Egyptian New Year ceremony (corruption of the Atonement and Song of Thanksgiving). Pharaoh or other persons dressed as the gods (including female entities) as part of the ceremony. Nibley explained this in various books prior to his death. It also reflects an accepted practice for the pharaoh to allow a distinguished visitor to sit on his throne.
Figure 1:
Abraham is dressed as Osiris; he wears the Atef Crown. Ostrich feathers represented: cycle of life and death; fertility; ruler of the afterlife. He also holds a flail and shepherd's crook.
Figure 2:
Pharaoh is dressed as Isis and wears the head symbol for Hathor and holds an ankh in the right hand.
Figure 3:
Abraham in Egypt (Click on link to view details).
Figure 4:
Prince is dressed as Maat, as shown by the sun disk and feather of truth on the head.
Figure 5:
Shulom: A cone of perfumed grease with an ostrich feather is on his head. The feather of Maat represents justification to live in paradise (acceptance by Osiris). This scene appeared in his funeral text, which celebrated Shulom's close service to Pharaoh.
Figure 6:
Olimlah: servant of Pharaoh who here represents Anubis.

Urim = Lights
Thummim = Perfections
They looked similar to reading glasses with triangular shaped lens. The high priest folded and placed them in a pocket of the breastplate behind the 12 stones of Israel.

Numerous scholars have claimed that this pyramid in Giza, Egypt, was built to foretell the coming of Jesus Christ. An excellent book is "Decoding the Great Pyramid" by Peter Lemesurier. Items of interest include:
- Time line in pyramid inches (1" = 1 year); time of Moses, Christ, World War 1, World War 2, future chaos. Orson Hyde wrote about the pyramid inch/time aspect and claimed that the "Grand Gallery" indicated a great event in 1830.
- Dimensions/weight reflect distance of earth from sun/moon, weight of earth, etc. Modern satellites confirm that Egyptian measurements were accurate to within feet (such as center of earth to pole in Egyptian Royal Cubit).
  1. Pyramid Base ratio of 11:7 (1.571) approximates squaring the circle.
  2. Pyramid Mass: 5,955,000 tons 10^8 = Mass of Earth.
  3. Speed of Light = 299,792,458 meters per second. Egyptians did not use a metric system, however, the same geographic coordinate for the pyramid reflects the speed of light in a vacuum (29.9792458 degrees North).
  4. Sun's Mean Radius = 427,316 miles. This same measurement is twice the perimeter of the coffin bottom x 10^8 (270.45378502 Pyramid Inches x 10^8 = 427,316 miles)
- Passages and chambers = progress of soul through life on earth (similar to moving through rooms/stages in temple endowment).

Egyptian Book of the Dead Terms: Pyramid Representations:
Chamber of Central Fire
   (Chamber of Ordeal)
Subterranean Chamber
Chamber of Rebirth
   (Chamber of Regeneration; Chamber of the Moon)
Queen's Chamber
Chamber of Resurrection
   (Chamber of Grand Orient; Chamber of Open Tomb)
King's Chamber
Chamber of Triple Veil
   (Chamber of Ordeal)
Crossing of Pure Roads of Life Upper passageways intersection
Door of Ascent Entrance to Ascending Passage
Double Hall of Truth Descending Passage & Grand Gallery
Hall of Truth in Darkness Ascending Passage
Hall of Truth in Light Grand Gallery
Passage of the Coming Forth of the Regenerated Soul Queen's Chamber Passage
Passage of the Veil King's Chamber Passage
Royal Arch of the Solstice Entrance to King's Chamber Passage
Secret Places of Hidden God Construction Chambers
Well of Life Well-Shaft

Numerology of the Pyramid:
1        = Unity; Oneness (At-one-ment)
2        = Generation; produce (man and woman)
3        = Trinity; perfection (Godhead)
3.1412 (pi) = Eternity; the divine; circle
4        = Physical; terrestrial; square; death in Chinese language
5        = Initiation; endowment; fellowship
6        = Preparation; incompleteness of spirituality
7        = Eternal perfection
8        = Baptism; Rebirth; Resurrection
9        = Utter perfection (3 x 3); Asian lucky number
10      = Eternity; millennium; Messianic age
11      = Physical reality; achievement
12      = Mankind; true man (tribes of Israel; apostles of Christ)
13      = Soul; spiritual man
19      = Death; mortality
25      = Messianic Ideal
33.5   = Messiah (His age in mortality)
70      = Attain enlightenment; escape; eternity
99      = Culmination
100    = Ultimate reward for good; retribution for evil
153    = Enlightenment
175    = Attainment of spiritual perfection (Abraham's age at death)
1,000 = Eternity; millennium; Messianic age

Equations in the Pyramid:
Addition = and; add to; leads to; with
Division = by; through an agent
Multiplication = of; produces
Square = complete; utter
Square Root = beginning of; essence of; seed of
Subtraction = detract; without

6 = 2 x 3 or preparation produces perfection
8 = 2 x 4 or rebirth produces the terrestrial/physical
10 = 2 x 5 or millennium produces an initiate/endowed
19 = 25 - 6 or life without Christ = spiritual death
12 = 2 x 6 or mankind is productive of the imperfect
12 = 3 x 4 or Trinity influence the physical to become perfected
4 x 4 = 2 x 8 or utter/completeness of the physical produces rebirth
4 x 5 = 2 x 10 or rebirth of Messiah produces the millennium
8 + 12 = 2 x 10 or rebirth added to mankind brings the millennium
8 x 5 = 10 x 4 or rebirth of Messiah = earthly millennium

Significant Dates in the Pyramid:
(Although these dates appear in the pyramid timeline, we should remain wary of making rash conclusions regarding future dates.)
2623 BC - Pyramid built
2141 BC - Abraham in Egypt
1453 BC - Moses leads Israelites from Egypt
33 AD    - Jesus Christ's resurrection
1830 AD - Orson Hyde noted a rise in the floor at this significant date (restoration)
1845 AD - Brigham Young (foundation of Final Age)
1914 AD - World War 1
1945 AD - World War 2 (nuclear bombs used; war ends)
2004 AD - Beginning of major turmoil (collapse of materialism by 2025)
2014 AD - "River of Fire" (possible nuclear world war: seen in vision by prophets Joseph Smith, Jr., John Taylor, and George A. Smith); Mayan year is 2012.
2025 AD - Collapse of materialism; world collectively sees the approach of the asteroid Apophis (aka Wormwood -- see New Testament, Revelation 8:11)
2032 AD - Worst period of turmoil in earth's history
2034 AD - Sign in sky of Messiah's coming (Oct 21); OT Feast of Tabernacle.
2039 AD - Projected date of Christ's return (Oct 21); OT Feast of Tabernacle.
2132 AD - Unexplained
2569 AD - Unexplained
3989 AD - End of Time (earth is celestialized)
(OT = Bible Old Testament)

-   Capstone = Jesus Christ; birth of enlightenment (5 points, 5 sides = 5 points of fellowship; also 5 x 5 = 25 or Messianic Ideal). NOTE: The capstone never was placed atop this pyramid, but was found resting at the pyramid's base. The Egyptians planned to place it on top once the Messiah came to earth during His millennial reign.
-   Chamber: King's = celestial; Queen's = terrestrial or potential for earthly enlightenment; Subterranean = death/hell
-   Directions: southward = soul's progress in time on earth; northward = return to physical life; down/left/east = descend into evil or spiritual loss; up/right/west = progress in life and enlightenment
-   Pyramid = Planet Earth
-   Shapes: Circle = celestial/eternal/spiritual; Rectangle/Square = physical; Squared Circle (square inside a circle) = physical brought into conformity with the spiritual. NOTE: Salt Lake temple is designed as a squared circle, as were ancient temples throughout the world.
-   Stones: limestone = physical world in space/time; granite = spiritual world or eternity
-   Surfaces & Other Items: Flat/rough-finished surface = earth or worldly; Irregular floor surface = no specific time scale; Irregular tops of granite inserts = messenger from the spiritual world; Chamber = era of ultimate decision; Gabled Chamber (7 sides/10 corners or 70) = attain enlightenment or eternity; Flat-Roofed Chamber (8 points/6 sides) = gate via rebirth to a higher level; Open "Coffin" = escape from mortality/translation to a higher level (same inner measurements as in King Solomon's Molten Sea in the temple); Ventilation Shafts = escape from mortal world.

DC 58:27-28 discusses man's opportunity and responsibility to use talents as a boon to others. We constantly fill and empty containers (bottles; stomach with food; lungs with air; mind with knowledge; etc). We must give out in order to take in. As for knowledge and good deeds, we do not lose any of this by giving to others. This action enables us to take in (similar to Christ's story of the talents) and continually increase. Concept is akin to how God continues to advance. Those who refuse to give out cannot take in; this is damnation (stopped in progress).

This is emphasized by the ancient symbolism of a hand in cupping shape. This represented Christ fulfilling his mission: filling His cup to overflowing, which symbolized His sacrifice to help mankind. Likewise, we should fill our cup (complete our mission in life) as promised in order to obtain a celestial life.

Duane Hurst translated facsimile 2 hieroglyphs in the Thai language in October 2006. Sister Srilaksana (AKA Mae Sri), who translated the Book of Mormon/hymns/Doctrine and Covenants/Pearl of Great Price in Thai, helped correct his translation in March 2007. The final version appears below. Duane likewise translated text in a diagram of Khufu's pyramid that is included, along with a map of Abraham's world.

The map reflects some ancient kingdoms and names, such as Kittim rather than Cyprus. Three cities called Ur are shown. Abraham did not live in Ur of Sumer (modern Iraq) because Egypt had no influence in that region. Archeologists have found two other cities that are likely candidates for Abraham's Ur; one in northwest Syria, a second in southeast Turkey. Egypt exerted a strong influence over both of those cities at that time.

Duane added detailed Plan of Life charts in English and Thai. Also enclosed:
-   Comparison of the Electromagnetic Spectrum to the Gospel Spectrum (also why Einstein's Unified Field Theory can never work)
-   Greater to Lesser kingdom chart (DC 88:36-38 and 131:7), which compares galaxy to a cell and Solar system to an atom.

Thai Translation by Duane Hurst and Sister Srilaksana (March 2007):

Map of Abraham's world:

Inside the Pyramid of Khufu:

This diagram depicts the inner chambers of Khufu's pyramid at Giza. (Ancient Greeks called this Cheop's pyramid.) Time line represents years in pyramid inches. Orson Hyde wrote about this time line after his visit to the Middle East and his dedication of Israel. He noted an incline at year 1830, which no one else considered important. That marked a formal restoration of Christ's church to earth. This pyramid never was a tomb; it was designed both as a temple and foretelling the advent of the Messiah. Likewise, it reflected celestial/ terrestrial/telestial events and measurements (such as distance of the earth from the sun/moon, weight of the earth, time on earth compared to Kolob, etc.)

Note that dates are not absolute, particularly those projected in the pyramid for the Great Sign and return of the Messiah. According to the Old Testament, His return likely will be during the Feast of Tabernacles (21 October) or one day after Yom Teruah (Day of Trumpets) in September. The "River of Fire" most likely will be a nuclear war and subsequent "natural" upheaval such as earthquakes, tsunamis, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions and massive cloud cover-from both volcanoes and nuclear fallout.

Orion Constellation Constellation Draco

Book of Mormon Map:

The following map contains probable locations for Book of Mormon related locations in modern Mexico and Central America. Directions often are mentioned as up or down; this was in reference to going up the mountains or down into the valleys and plains. Also note that colors for directions are not the same as for the ancient Egyptians. The only similar color is Red for East. Nephites likewise painted their buildings in red, just as the Egyptians and other cultures of the Middle East. Both Jaredites and Mulekites arrived in the area from the east; Lehi's family came from the west via the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Nephi led his people north from the Guatemalan coast and built a city at present day Guatemala City. The Waters of Mormon was located at today's Lake Atitlan, west of Nephi.

King Limhi sent a group of soldiers north along the River Sidon in search of Zarahemla. They followed the wrong headwaters, missing Zarahemla and found ruins of Jaredite cities at Joshua, "Desolation" and the Tampico area. Their route was along the Grijalva River rather than the Usumacinta or Chixoy (Sidon) River. Both headwaters are within one mile of each other in the mountains of Guatemala.

There is a tradition in Chichén Itzá, Yucatán Peninsula, that three special messengers led the people of Teotihuacan across the sea about 421 AD. They were the three translated Nephites, who led descendants of the Anti-Nephi-Lehites to safety since they refused to fight in the last Lamanite-Nephite war.

Click here to view details of my interactive Book of Mormon Map.

Electromagnetic and Gospel Spectrums:

Electromagnetic and Gospel Spectrums (Thai Version):

Plan of Life: English and Thai versions

Greater to Lesser Kingdoms:

Hugh Nibley's chart of Religious Outlook on Life:
    (Pessimist; Stoicism)
    (Standard Christianity and Judaism)
    (Monastic life)
    (Tao; Zen. Distraction, drugs, escapism, sports, success)
    (Ancient Egypt; Hermetic Greeks)
    (Romanticism; Wordsworth's poem about pre-earth life)
    (Various American Indian tribes)
    (Church and Gospel of Jesus Christ; Kingdom of God)

My interpretation of "Let your eye be single to the glory of God". See Moses 1:39 also D&C 82:19 and 88:33

Focus on becoming perfect and live with God again, but not just to sing praises. As God said to Moses, His work and glory is to help children progress to become like God. Joseph Smith Jr. clarified this concept in the King Follett discourse. God gains greater glory as Jesus advances in His footsteps. Likewise, each person contributes to God's glory by progressing along the Gospel path. No one is diminished.

Consider the "Oath and Covenant" of the priesthood in D&C 84. This clearly states that everyone at the same level in God's celestial kingdom share all that God has created. He views possessions differently from people on earth. We see things as: This is mine; that is yours. His view is: This is ours. Tithing is a lower law designed to teach us to share, in order that we can observe the higher law of consecration.

Another concept: The righteous are all people who are repenting. It does not matter whether or not they currently are members of Christ's church. Likely they will become members after accepting the gospel in paradise.

© Page Publisher: Duane R. Hurst