Srivijaya Empire      
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(Text by Duane R. Hurst © 2013)

Click on a link to view its information and pictures.
Significant Event:
    Battle of Kedah in 1068 AD
    Borobudur Temple

Main Cities: Dur-Kurigalzu; Minanga Tamwan; Palembang
Time: 683-1293 AD
Language: Old Malay; Sanskrit
Personage: Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa; Indravarman; Samaratungga
Religion: Buddhism; Hindu
Related Country: Indonesia

Brief History:
      I have included only a few items concerning the history of this empire. A good source for more details can be found on Wikipedia or in history books.

Map of Srivijayan Empire
Click Map to Enlarge
      In 683 AD, Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa founded Srivijaya after leading his followers from Minanga Tamwan to Jambi and Palembang of an ancient region called "Matajap". An important center for this kingdom was located on the Moesi River. Jayanasa conquered the Kingdom of Melayu (aka Jambi) circa 680s AD. He later conquered the kingdoms of Kalingga (6th-7th centuries AD) and Tarumanagara (358-669 AD).

      Circa the 8th century AD, the Buddhist family of Sailendra on Java intermarried with Srivijayan royalty. The Sailendras built the impressive temple at Borobudur. Srivijaya was a center for trade between China and India during the period of 850-1025 AD. A current aspect of ancient Srivijayan culture is the Banding Srivijaya dance.

      In 990 AD, the Kingdom of Medang invaded and sacked Palembang. King Chulamanivarmadeva of Srivijaya petitioned and received help from a Chinese army, which repelled the Medang army in 1006 AD. Chulamanivarmadeva retaliated by helping king Wurawari in Luaram to revolt. A combined force destroyed Medang palace and executed the royal family.

      Rajendra Chola I of the Chola Empire raided Srivijayan ports in 1025 AD and for a time occupied Kadaram (modern Kedah). This resulted in downfall of Sailendra domination in Srivijaya and the empire made peace with an old enemy, the Kingdom of Kahuripan (1019-1045 AD). In 1068 AD, king Virarajendra Chola of the Chola Empire seized Kadaram from Srivijaya. The Battle of Kedah and invasion took a heavy toll in disrupted trade, lost warriors and squandered wealth. Many regions rebelled and formed independent kingdoms. In the empire's waning years, Malayu briefly became the capital. Shortly thereafter Dharmasraya was the capital, becoming chief city of the Dharmasraya Kingdom (1183-1347 AD) on Sumatra.

© Page Publisher: Duane R. Hurst