NOTES: (Duane R. Hurst, © October 2002)
FORWARD: I am aware that
many members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) doubt the veracity of
Joseph Smith Junior's
"translation" from Egyptian hieroglyphs, including the facsimiles found in the
Book of Abraham.
Today various LDS general authorities prefer to believe Egyptologist detractors rather than give credence
to Joseph's God-given gift to reveal
lost writings. Even at a young age I desired to know the
meaning of those hieroglyphs. So, I spent much time learning to understand and translate the facsimile
hieroglyphs. After doing so in English (see below), I later translated them into Thai
(see Item 1 and
Item 2) and a friend did the
My latest translations in 2018 were in French,
It is obvious to anyone trained in reading such hieroglyphs that Joseph did
not translate the Book of Abraham from papyri that early LDS members purchased while in
They clearly indicate portions of an Egyptian
Book of the Dead. However, what too many people refuse to
recognize is that the papyri merely served as a catalyst for Joseph to receive a direct revelation into
the original writings of Abraham. An Egyptian Book of the Dead was a corrupted mishmash of original
teachings from Adam down to subsequent patriarchs, such as Abraham.
As for Joseph's interpretation of figures from the hypocephalus (facsimile 2),
he was correct. Critics should note that he used terms such as "signify", "represent" and "called" when he
"translated" figures and symbols on that hypocephalus. He did not translate the hieroglyphs. Rather, he said
they "Ought not to be revealed at the present time" and "will be given in the own due time of the Lord."
My attitude for many years was: That was for Joseph's time, but not necessarily for my time. That is why I
and others have studied and translated those hieroglyphs. It also should be noted that mention of pharaoh
on facsimile 2 does not negate validity of the hypocephalus. Yes, he lived many years after
Abraham. However, the hypocephalus likely was a later copy of one originally made in the time of
Abraham. Common practice was for a scribe to change an owner's name, while retaining much of the
hieroglyphic writing. The "new" hypocephalus would then be used in the owner's funeral by
placing it under his head.
Critics who do not make an effort to learn the hieroglyphs, and are content to let other people
dictate meanings to them, are not competent to criticize Joseph Smith's work. As for Egyptologists who smugly
berate his efforts, their criticism reflects on their pomposity and refusal to seek enlightenment from God.
TRANSLATION AND SYMBOLISM:
Facsimile 2 represents "Process of life from highest to lowest realms".
Hypocephalus = Greek term for "Under the Head". Egyptians called it [hry-tp]
"Heat the Head". It was designed to assist a dead person in using key words for entry into the eternal realm.
A hypocephalus also represents "One Eternal Round".
Egyptians also called it the "Pupil of the Eye of Osiris".
was an Egyptian god who represented the Savior; originally taught by Adam and other
patriarchs such as Noah to his
They in turn taught the gospel message to their posterity. Through the ages, the true plan of life and role of
Jesus Christ became distorted and
resulted in false gods and dogmatic nonsense.
NOTE: This is key to understanding the relationship between information
taught in the temple endowment and doctrine revealed in D&C sections 84 and 88. It also helps explain the
meaning of keeping an eye single to God's glory. Likewise, it represents how the pupil acts as a window
to the eye/mind/soul. Light/knowledge of truth enters the eye; reflects on the eye's cones and rods;
images are inverted and transmitted to the brain, which correctly interprets the true image; this allows
the soul to expand in knowledge and power.
The top 2/3 of this hypocephalus represents the eternal or heavenly realm; the
bottom 1/3 represents the earthly. It is shown upside down because the Egyptians consider earth life a mirror of heaven.
Duane Hurst translated these hieroglyphs into the following languages:
Figures 5-7 represent a reversal of entropy/death; represents a negentropic view
(ongoing expansion of life)
Kolob = star nearest God's celestialized planet; heart (controls the universe)
- qalb means "heart, center, middle" in Arabic (term for very bright stars)
- qlb means "middle, midst, to draw near" in Hebrew
- m-qab means "in the midst of" in Egyptian
Kolob is holding the symbol of dominion (was). Three important symbols are: life (ankh); dominion (was); stability (djed)
Meanings of the above symbols according to Hugh Nibley in 1988-1990:
Ankh = Health in the navel
Was = Marrow in the bones
Djed = Authority/power in the priesthood
Two-headed figure indicates that God can see past/future and represents his hidden and mysterious power.
Goat horns on the head symbolize God's fecundity in creating posterity throughout all eternity.
Jackals on his shoulders represent wep-wawet, the "Opener of the Way" (Jesus Christ, who opened the
path out of death and hell).
||Signifies primeval waters; "before creation".
Meaning: "Spirit of God rippling the waters."
NOTE: Djam scepter (the sign of "preservation") above the following:
Signifies: "Irrigated Land"
Signifies: "Ability; Force"
Signifies: "One Cubit" Arm raised to the square; one day to the cubit.
Baboon figures with upraised hands commonly represented Thoth,
god of writing and wisdom; they also are
associated with the sun due to their habit of warming their hands in the morning light. In this picture
the hands indicate receiving borrowed light from Kolob. Both baboons have symbols of the
crescent moon and sun
on their heads. A snake is between each baboon and Kolob; probably indicates snake "Iru-To" (Egyptian
symbol of earth's creator).
Jah-oh-eh = Egyptian word for our Earth.
Joseph Smith (in the "Times & Seasons") defined this as "O the Earth" (aka "Yah-oh-eh").
Egyptian language: = "O Earth"
Note: Egyptian = bread and pyramid; ta khut = light.
Both are used in Khufu's (aka Cheop's) Pyramid
to represent Jesus Christ ("bread of life and light of heaven"; also
"mediator between Earth and God"). See D&C 88:6-13
"One day to a cubit" (one Kolob day = 1,000 Earth years). Orson Pratt
spoke about the relationship between cubit and light a/w celestial travel.
Duane Hurst: "We cannot measure celestial physical laws with telestial devises."
1. Egyptian Royal Cubit = One 10 millionth of the distance from north or
south pole to center of the Earth (25.0265 inches). Earth's mean polar radius = 3949.89 miles or
2. Egyptian Sacred Cubit = 10 to the 3rd power X the square root of pi
divided by (4 x 365.24235+) Royal cubits.
3. Pyramid Inch = 1/25th of Royal Cubit (1.00106 inch); ancient Hebrew and
English measurement still used today). Used inside Khufu's Pyramid to indicate future events (1 inch =
1 year). Stonehenge
in England reportedly was built within 100 years after the pyramids and used the same system of measurement.
4. Egyptian Aroura = a square of 100 Royal cubits; ¼ Aroura = one Earth year
(area of a circle whose circumference in the number of Pyramid Inches = 10 x total days in Earth's
mean Solar tropical year).
CLUE: Cubit & hand raised to the square is significant in understanding this concept. The
Earth's ¼ circle shown above = 365. 24235+ days; Kolob's ¼ circle = 1,000 of Earth's years. Both systems are based on
the cubit. This helps explain how angels travel via light instantly, such as Joseph's description of Moroni.
(NOTE: Angel means a messenger from God. Ancient Christians correctly depicted them without
wings. The notion of wings started in the middle ages when people believed nothing could fly without having wings.
Moroni had a beard, as early pictures
In his Grammar and Alphabet of the Egyptian Language (unpublished by LDS Church, but in the archives), Joseph stated
1 cubit of time = 3 days; a cubit of motion increases or decreases according to the sign of the degrees. Kli-flos-is-es
(Hah-ko-kau-beam) = Kolob in its motion; being first in motion. Measurement for Kli-flos-is-es = 24 cubits (72 days).
Two-headed figure indicates that God can see past/future and represents his hidden and mysterious power. Jackals on his
shoulders and the jackal standard represent wep-wawet, the "Opener of the Way" (Jesus Christ).
Maat feathers on head
indicate justice. Ointment jar on table indicates kingship. (This also appears in Facsimile 1,
Abraham in Egypt.)
Goat horns on the head symbolize God's fecundity in creating
posterity throughout all eternity. Green Sobek
(crocodile) represents resurrection of the body; green is the color of
rejuvenation. Translation of hieroglyphs: "The Name of this Mighty God."
Note staff in left hand, so that right hand can be raised to the square. Staff = wep-wawet, he (jackal or hunting dog)
who opens the way/begins the Year [according to Hugh Nibley; Michael Rhodes calls it a "was" scepter (symbol of dominion)].
Represents Jesus Christ, who opens the path from physical and spiritual death to eternal life with God.
God is sitting on his throne , which is the hieroglyph for "temple".
(Note the "holy of Holies" - box within a box)
Wdjat-eye = All seeing eye of God (divine wisdom; foreknowledge; priesthood power);
indicates full knowledge of the endowment and all measurements/orbits/power a/w controlling
planets, stars and galaxies. It also represents the right eye of Rah
(the Sun). The top left eye symbolizes the
Moon (Rah's left eye).
- A lotus blossom is in the bow of the boat (represents peace & life); the boat represents God can travel throughout
his heavenly realm. Red and white of lotus represent Life and Death; East and West; Blood and No Blood. That also is
why Jesus Christ is depicted wearing red and white; He overcame death
through the atonement and resurrection.
- 15 stars in the boat represent the 15 governing stars (see Figure 4)
Translation of hieroglyphs: "Divine ship." (God's boat)
on back of head = Wings symbolize the "First Mystery of All Mysteries".
They also represent the Grand Presidency in heaven.
Sokar-boat (used to represent revolutions of the sun and other celestial bodies)
(aka Seker) was the Egyptian falcon god, closely associated with
Ptah (god of creation).
Notice the Phoenix
[aka Bennu-Bird] sits in this boat.
Egyptians believed this bird burst into flames each 1,000 years and symbolized a
rejuvenation or resurrection. It likely represented a new millennium and dispensation. Likewise, it symbolized a new day for God
(because 1,000 earth years equals one day for Kolob).
Nibley said it also was called a Chonsu (Crouching Bird), meaning "He Who Traverses". It represented
passage of a heavenly body in space.
NOTE: Dots on boat = 15 governing stars (also on figure 3 boat)
Joseph Smith provided the following names of these stars (see Grammar):
Zip; Vusel; Venisti; Waine; Wayoh-ox-oan; Oansli; Sheble; Shineflis; Flis; Os.
HURST NOTE: Egyptian names for the 15 "planets" are:
Oanisis; Flosisis; Floese; Abbesels; Eleash; Subble; Slundlo; Carroam; Crashmakraw; Obblesisim;
Izinsbah; Missel; Nahmesile; Oheeoopzah; Zool
Meaning of certain names:
- Ahman = Man of Holiness (Moses 6:57)
- Son Ahman = Son of Ahman (Jesus Christ; DC 78:20 and DC 95:17)
- Jah-ni-hah = Jehovah (see Grammar); hah = related to water
- Adam-ondi-Ahman = Adam before God (Adam in the presence of God) See
- Ah meh-strah = Egypt (see Grammar); Mizraim in Hebrew
- Egyptus = Forbidden; daughter of Ham and
discovers Egypt and brings honeybees to start new life
- Kli-flos-is-es = Kolob in its motion
- Melchizedek = Shem, son of Noah
- Oliblish = Center of Kli-flos-is-es; Egyptians thought it was Rigel in Orion constellation
- Olishem = Hill of Heaven
- Potipher's hill = Hill of Re's Appointed
- Shagre-el = God Rah (Re); represents our Sun and
Sirius (Dog Star)
- Zeptah = Wife of Ham (see Grammar)
Enish-go-on-dosh = our sun (cow Hathor represents Eve); Maat feathers
Floeese = our moon (figure of Egyptian goddess Wedjat, who holds a lotus
blossom that represents daily/annual renewal of the sun). Red and white of lotus represent Life and Death;
East and West.
Hah-ko-kau-beam (Hebrew has a similar term, which means "the stars")
Kae-e-vanrash = Governing Power; Grand Key; Melchizedek Priesthood (Nibley said it
means: "Exalted one who opens at the call.") Principle of energy and control; priesthood power in action (aka nature).
Also shown in facsimile 1:
Significant representations of these four canopic jars:
1. 4 seasons (fall; winter; spring; summer)
2. 4 figures--Egypt (hawk; jackal; ape; human)
3. 4 figures-Revelations 4:7 (eagle; lion; calf; man)
4. 4 gods-Egyptian (Horus;
5. 4 gods-Abraham (Elkenah; Libnah; Mahmackrah; Korash)
- Elkenah = El Kinah (god of Canaan);
El = God; Kinah = Canaan (aka Hurrian people)
- Libnah = White Land (modern
Libya due to light-skinned and haired people in ancient times;
Lebanon also was called a white land due to snow on mountains)
- Mahmackrah = Mighty like Rah (Re); sun god of Egypt
- Korash = Cush (modern Sudan; Nubia = modern
Punt = modern Ethiopia)
6. 4 peoples (Desert; Libya;
7. 4 internal organs (stomach; intestines; lungs; liver)
8. 4 directions (east; west; north; south)
9. 4 elements of creation (fire; wind; water; earth)
10. 4 constellations:
11. 4 colors (red; white; blue; green)
Note: Djed represents red/desert/honey bee. Its symbol =
English "desert" is from this Egyptian word.
"Sir" also is derived from ancient Egyptian, which is a term of honor for a superior.
12. 4 stars in Big Dipper constellation; Egyptian names for the stars:
dwamft; qbhsnwf; hpy; imsty
13. 4 winds (east; west; north; south)
14. 4 sons of Horus (falcon-headed god of Egypt)
15. 4 spirits
16. 4 quarters (commonly used to divide land and a city in ancient times)
Egyptian surveyors atop a pyramid made measurements after each flooding of the
Nile River to determine property boundaries.
This system for quartering the land and cities was used by
They also referred to land as Up and Down, due to the mountainous terrain.
EXTRA MEANINGS FOR:
- Elkenah: Sun Rise = Blood = Life; this is why brides anciently wore red in a wedding.
- Libnah: Sun Set = No Blood = Death; this is why people wore white at funerals.
Brides began wearing white after Jesus Christ atoned for mankind and resurrected. It also
symbolized his triumph over death, His blood thus freeing the righteous and sealing those married under His ordinances and covenant to enjoy
an eternal marriage. White originally did not represent purity; that later became an accepted symbolism.
Three symbols (gods of the Sun)
adjacent the 4 "seasons"
1. Lotus = Khepri (rising sun). Also as: Scarab Beetle
2. Lion = Atum (setting sun). Also as: Old man leaning on stick
3. Ram = Re (midday sun). Also as: Hawk
These also represent the biological cycle ("food chain"): vegetation eaten by herbivore; herbivore eaten by carnivore;
carnivore dies and rots, out of the lion carcass comes new life via the honeybee.
First and most powerful Egyptian god (Ammon derives from Min). Feathers on his
back represent wings and Grand Presidency in Heaven (see crown on Abraham's head in facsimile 3 -- similar meaning).
Min also represents the one who opens the way for all others (shows a close affinity between Father and Son). Nibley
claimed this figure represented Father in the form of a dove or the "First mystery of all other mysteries."
HURST NOTE: This may indicate that the Father previously served as a "Holy Spirit"
and "Savior". It clarifies what Joseph Smith said in his King Follett discourse:
"...as the Father hath power in himself, even so hath the Son power...to lay down my life as my Father did, and take it up again."
Egyptians also honored Min as Ham, the first man who settled Egypt at Coptus.
Egyptian pictures and writings are
full of multiple meanings. In this case, Joseph Smith gave the correct designations for symbols, which
Egyptologists long misinterpreted.
Arrow-shape behind the head is a flail (Nehaha)
in his hand; it indicates power and authority. It also represents Nehahr
or creative power obtained via the ultimate endowment.
Note: Upraised "hands", which may indicate a key in the endowment ceremony.
Kha = Egyptian symbol for spirit. Arms equate to sun rays; hill of earth is centered
Note: Dove is presenting a Wdjat eye, which holds the secret behind all measurements.
It represents obtainment of procreative power or ultimate endowment and fullness of knowledge.
Figures 12 - 15:
These are hieratic text, not hieroglyphs. They later were copied from Joseph Smith papyrus XI and
refer to a little Breathing Permit.
TRANSLATION: (by Duane Hurst) Hieroglyphs in Figures 2-3; 8-11; 15-21
2. The name of that Mighty God.
3. God's boat.
8-11 Oh God of the Sleeping Ones in creation, chief/head Mighty God, Lord of heaven, earth, hell, and the
mighty/great waters -- give life to the soul of Osiris Sheshaq.
16-17 Never desecrate (this) tomb; never desecrate this soul or his lord in the hereafter.
19-21 Behold you (shall) be as/of that God, the Busirian.
18 I am the God who provides in the Sun Temple in On.
(I am) an exalted, glorious, virile bull without equal. (I am) that Mighty God (who gives) offerings in the Sun Temple
in On. Grant that Osiris Sheshaq live forever with that Mighty God in On.
Busirian = Busiris
was ancient Egypt's center for human sacrifice. This was where "beds" were
first designed to kill a substitute for Pharaoh during the new year scapegoat ritual. Egyptian priests intended to make Abraham
a substitute "Pharaoh for the Day" and offer his life in the atonement ritual. This was a corruption of Christ's atonement,
which teaching originated with Adam's instruction to his descendants. Osiris was also known as "Lord of Busiris".
On (Egyptians called the city ) Chief religious city of Egypt.
Abraham taught Pharaoh here; Joseph "sold into Egypt" married Asenath,
whose father was chief priest of On; Moses once lived here;
Mary and Joseph took baby Jesus here to escape
King Herod because a large community of Jews lived here. It also was the
location where the "reformed" (Demotic)
Egyptian shorthand writing system was developed, the one Lehi
and Nephi studied. Greek
name for On = Heliopolis (city of the sun).
Heliopolis also represented the Pleiades,
to which the Leo Constellation pointed. In a 70-day cycle that also involved
the Nile River, ancient Egyptian adepts could predict when the
river would flood. In essence, as the Sun appeared to move across the sky
from Heliopolis across the Nile towards Leo, so it mirrored the Sun's movement from the Pleiades
across the Milky Way band of stars
towards Leo. Likewise, measurement from the three pyramids at Giza
(that represented the three stars in Orion Constellation) gave a represented
measurement between the Pleiades and Leo.
Egyptian god (similar actions/attributes to Jesus Christ)
Sheshaq = Name of several Pharaohs of Egypt (XXI dynasty), who lived much later than the time of
Abraham. Sheshonq I
(Sheshaq) sacked Jerusalem in 926 BC and carried the temple implements to On.
TRANSLATION: (by Michael Rhodes) Hieroglyphs in Figures 2-3; 8-11; 15-21
8-11 O God of the Sleeping Ones from the time of the creation. O Mighty God, Lord of heaven and earth,
of the hereafter [Hurst: This should read "hell" as it represents Egyptian
"duat"], and of his great waters. May the Soul of the Osiris Sheshaq be granted life.
16-17 May this tomb never be desecrated, and may this soul and its lord never
be desecrated in the hereafter.
19-21 You shall ever be as that God, the Busirian.
18 I am the Provider in the Sun Temple in Heliopolis.
I am most exalted and very glorious. I am a virile bull without equal. I am that Mighty God in the Sun Temple of
Heliopolis. May the Osiris Sheshaq live forever with that Mighty God in Heliopolis.
NOTE: Item 16 in facsimile 2 has a hieroglyph that contains "eternity" elements,
which include "hell" (star of contained radiance) and the 3 "kingdoms". Rhodes' translation of "hereafter" is too
Notes about Facsimile 1:
1. Horus (hawk) can be viewed to represent Jesus Christ.
2. Seth (Egyptian god of death) can be viewed to represent Satan.
3. Sobek (crocodile god) also represented Ptah, father to Egyptian gods. Thus, it could represent God the Father.
English "father" is derived from Ptah.
4. Item number 11 (Pillars of Heaven):
There are 12 doors. 5 and 12 are common numbers of importance to Egyptians and
Hebrews. Pyramids contain the 5 pillars: each corner (NEWS = North; East; West; South) and the central pillar.
These also represent the five points of fellowship.
12 is important to Hebrews to represent the tribes of Israel;
Egyptians thought it auspicious, as it indicated a multiple of the trinity and 4 pillars. 5 usually was the number
that Egyptians chose to represent the pillars of heaven.
5. Number 12 represents water/firmament. The Egyptian artist failed to remove the guidelines after drawing the "water".
6. Egyptian artists followed a prescribed pattern to depict mortals in right profile and deity/royalty in left profile.
PEARL OF GREAT PRICE: FACSIMILE 1
- Isis = Sirius (Egyptians called this "Dog Star":
- Maat = Eve
- Priest of Elkenah = Horus (Orion)
- Osiris = Jesus Christ
Note that Sobek, crocodile god of Pharaoh , was located within the
water at the bottom of facsimile 1. There was a close association with Busiris and human sacrifice. Egyptians
believed Sobek ate the victim, brought him to the west bank, regurgitated the body and helped in its resurrection.
This action was part of the new year ritual, wherein Pharaoh "died" for the sins of his people and came back as a
resurrected king after receiving help from Sobek. This was a corruption of Christ's atonement and resurrection,
as originally taught by Adam and subsequent prophets.
PEARL OF GREAT PRICE: FACSIMILE 3
Pillars of Heaven and stars appear at the top of this facsimile. The scene is similar to the Egyptian New Year
ceremony (corruption of the Atonement and Song of Thanksgiving). Pharaoh or other persons dressed as the gods
(including female entities) as part of the ceremony. Nibley explained this in various books prior to his death.
It also reflects an accepted practice for the
pharaoh to allow a distinguished visitor to sit on his throne.
Abraham is dressed as Osiris
Pharaoh is dressed as Hathor
Prince is dressed as Maat
Shulom: This scene appeared in his funeral text, which celebrated Shulom's close service to Pharaoh.
URIM & THUMMIM:
Urim = Lights
Thummim = Perfections
They looked similar to reading glasses with triangular shaped lens. The high priest folded and placed them in a pocket of
the breastplate behind the 12 stones of Israel.
NOTES ON THE GREAT PYRAMID OF CHEOPS (KHUFU):
Numerous scholars have claimed that this pyramid in Giza, Egypt, was built to foretell the coming of Jesus Christ. An
excellent book is "Decoding the Great Pyramid"
by Peter Lemesurier. Items of interest include:
- Time line in pyramid inches (1" = 1 year); time of Moses, Christ, World War 1, World War 2, future chaos. Orson Hyde wrote about
the pyramid inch/time aspect and claimed that the "Grand Gallery" indicated a great event in 1830.
- Dimensions/weight reflect distance of earth from sun/moon, weight of earth, etc. Modern satellites confirm that Egyptian
measurements were accurate to within feet (such as center of earth to pole in Egyptian Royal Cubit).
1. Pyramid Base ratio of 11:7 (1.571) approximates squaring the circle.
2. Pyramid Mass: 5,955,000 tons 10^8 = Mass of Earth.
3. Speed of Light = 299,792,458 meters per second. Egyptians did not use a metric system, however,
the same geographic coordinate for the pyramid reflects the speed of light in a vacuum (29.9792458 degrees North).
4. Sun's Mean Radius = 427,316 miles. This same measurement is twice the perimeter of the coffin bottom x 10^8
(270.45378502 Pyramid Inches x 10^8 = 427,316 miles)
- Passages and chambers = progress of soul through life on earth (similar to moving through rooms/stages in temple endowment).
|Egyptian Book of the Dead Terms:
|Chamber of Central Fire
(Chamber of Ordeal)
|Chamber of Rebirth
(Chamber of Regeneration; Chamber of the Moon)
|Chamber of Resurrection
(Chamber of Grand Orient; Chamber of Open Tomb)
|Chamber of Triple Veil
(Chamber of Ordeal)
|Crossing of Pure Roads of Life
||Upper passageways intersection
|Door of Ascent
||Entrance to Ascending Passage
|Double Hall of Truth
||Descending Passage & Grand Gallery
|Hall of Truth in Darkness
|Hall of Truth in Light
|Passage of the Coming Forth of the Regenerated Soul
||Queen's Chamber Passage
|Passage of the Veil
||King's Chamber Passage
|Royal Arch of the Solstice
||Entrance to King's Chamber Passage
|Secret Places of Hidden God
|Well of Life
Numerology of the Pyramid:
1 = Unity; Oneness (At-one-ment)
2 = Generation; produce (man and woman)
3 = Trinity; perfection (Godhead)
3.1412 (pi) = Eternity; the divine; circle
4 = Physical; terrestrial; square; death in Chinese language
5 = Initiation; endowment; fellowship
6 = Preparation; incompleteness of spirituality
7 = Eternal perfection
8 = Baptism; Rebirth; Resurrection
9 = Utter perfection (3 x 3); Asian lucky number
10 = Eternity; millennium; Messianic age
11 = Physical reality; achievement
12 = Mankind; true man (tribes of Israel; apostles of Christ)
13 = Soul; spiritual man
19 = Death; mortality
25 = Messianic Ideal
33.5 = Messiah (His age in mortality)
70 = Attain enlightenment; escape; eternity
99 = Culmination
100 = Ultimate reward for good; retribution for evil
153 = Enlightenment
175 = Attainment of spiritual perfection (Abraham's age at death)
1,000 = Eternity; millennium; Messianic age
Equations in the Pyramid:
Addition = and; add to; leads to; with
Division = by; through an agent
Multiplication = of; produces
Square = complete; utter
Square Root = beginning of; essence of; seed of
Subtraction = detract; without
6 = 2 x 3 or preparation produces perfection
8 = 2 x 4 or rebirth produces the terrestrial/physical
10 = 2 x 5 or millennium produces an initiate/endowed
19 = 25 - 6 or life without Christ = spiritual death
12 = 2 x 6 or mankind is productive of the imperfect
12 = 3 x 4 or Trinity influence the physical to become perfected
4 x 4 = 2 x 8 or utter/completeness of the physical produces rebirth
4 x 5 = 2 x 10 or rebirth of Messiah produces the millennium
8 + 12 = 2 x 10 or rebirth added to mankind brings the millennium
8 x 5 = 10 x 4 or rebirth of Messiah = earthly millennium
Significant Dates in the Pyramid:
(Although these dates appear in the pyramid timeline, we should remain wary of making
rash conclusions regarding future dates.)
2623 BC - Pyramid built
2141 BC - Abraham in Egypt
1453 BC - Moses leads Israelites from Egypt
33 AD - Jesus Christ's resurrection
1830 AD - Orson Hyde noted a rise in the floor at this significant date (restoration)
1845 AD - Brigham Young (foundation of Final Age)
1914 AD - World War 1
1945 AD - World War 2 (nuclear bombs used; war ends)
2004 AD - Beginning of major turmoil (collapse of materialism by 2025)
2014 AD - "River of Fire" (possible nuclear world war: seen in vision by prophets
Joseph Smith, Jr., John Taylor, and George A. Smith); Mayan year is 2012.
2032 AD - Worst period of turmoil in earth's history
2034 AD - Sign in sky of Messiah's coming (Oct 21); OT Feast of Tabernacle.
2039 AD - Projected date of Christ's return (Oct 21); OT Feast of Tabernacle.
2132 AD - Unexplained
2569 AD - Unexplained
3989 AD - End of Time (earth is celestialized)
(OT = Bible Old Testament)
HYPOTHETICAL MEANING OF PYRAMID CODE:
- Capstone = Jesus Christ; birth of enlightenment
(5 points, 5 sides = 5 points of fellowship; also 5 x 5 = 25 or Messianic Ideal).
NOTE: The capstone never was placed atop this pyramid,
but was found resting at the pyramid's base. The Egyptians planned to place it on top
once the Messiah came to earth during His millennial reign.
- Chamber: King's = celestial; Queen's = terrestrial
or potential for earthly enlightenment; Subterranean = death/hell
- Directions: southward = soul's progress in time
on earth; northward = return to physical life; down/left/east = descend into evil or
spiritual loss; up/right/west = progress in life and enlightenment
- Pyramid = Planet Earth
- Shapes: Circle = celestial/eternal/spiritual;
Rectangle/Square = physical; Squared Circle (square inside a circle) = physical brought
into conformity with the spiritual. NOTE:
Salt Lake temple
is designed as a squared circle, as were ancient temples throughout the world.
- Stones: limestone = physical world in space/time;
granite = spiritual world or eternity
- Surfaces & Other Items: Flat/rough-finished surface =
earth or worldly; Irregular floor surface = no specific time scale; Irregular tops of
granite inserts = messenger from the spiritual world; Chamber = era of ultimate decision;
Gabled Chamber (7 sides/10 corners or 70) = attain enlightenment or eternity; Flat-Roofed
Chamber (8 points/6 sides) = gate via rebirth to a higher level; Open "Coffin" = escape
from mortality/translation to a higher level (same inner measurements as in King Solomon's
Molten Sea in the temple); Ventilation Shafts = escape from mortal world.
DC 58:27-28 discusses man's opportunity and responsibility to use talents as a boon to
others. We constantly fill and empty containers (bottles; stomach with food; lungs with air;
mind with knowledge; etc). We must give out in order to take in. As for knowledge and good
deeds, we do not lose any of this by giving to others. This action enables us to take in
(similar to Christ's story of the talents) and continually increase. Concept is akin to how
God continues to advance. Those who refuse to give out cannot take in; this is damnation
(stopped in progress).
This is emphasized by the ancient symbolism of a hand in cupping shape. This represented
Christ fulfilling his mission: filling His cup to overflowing, which symbolized His sacrifice
to help mankind. Likewise, we should fill our cup (complete our mission in life) as promised
in order to obtain a celestial life.
Duane Hurst translated facsimile 2 hieroglyphs in the Thai language in October 2006. Sister
Srilaksana (aka Mae Sri),
who translated the Book of Mormon/hymns/Doctrine and Covenants/Pearl of Great Price
in Thai, helped correct his translation in March 2007. The final version appears below. Duane
likewise translated text in a diagram of Khufu's pyramid that is included, along with a map of
The map reflects some ancient kingdoms and names, such as Kittim rather than
Cyprus. Three cities
called Ur are shown. Abraham did not live in Ur of Sumer
(modern Iraq) because Egypt had no
influence in that region. Archeologists have found two other cities that are likely candidates for
Abraham's Ur; one in northwest Syria,
a second in southeast Turkey. Egypt exerted a strong influence over both of those cities at that time.
Duane added detailed Plan of Life charts in English and Thai. Also enclosed:
- Comparison of the Electromagnetic Spectrum to the Gospel Spectrum (also why Einstein's
Unified Field Theory can never work)
- Greater to Lesser kingdom chart (DC 88:36-38 and 131:7), which compares galaxy to a cell
and Solar system to an atom.
Thai Translation by Duane Hurst and Sister Srilaksana (March 2007):
Map of Abraham's world:
Inside the Pyramid of Khufu:
This diagram depicts the inner chambers of Khufu's pyramid
at Giza. (Ancient Greeks called this
Cheop's pyramid.) Time line represents years in pyramid inches.
Orson Hyde wrote about this time line after his visit to the Middle East
and his dedication of Israel. He noted an incline at year 1830, which no one else considered important.
That marked a formal restoration of Christ's church to earth. This pyramid never was a tomb; it was
designed both as a temple and foretelling the advent of the Messiah. Likewise, it reflected celestial/
terrestrial/telestial events and measurements (such as distance of the earth from the sun/moon, weight
of the earth, time on earth compared to Kolob, etc.)
Note that dates are not absolute, particularly those projected in the pyramid for the Great Sign and
return of the Messiah. According to the Old Testament, His return likely will be during the
Feast of Tabernacles (21 October).
The "River of Fire" most likely
will be a nuclear war and subsequent "natural" upheaval such as earthquakes, tsunamis, tornadoes,
volcanic eruptions and massive cloud cover-from both volcanoes and nuclear fallout.
Book of Mormon Map:
The following map contains probable locations for Book of Mormon related locations in modern Mexico and
Central America. Directions often are mentioned as up or down; this was in reference to going up the mountains
or down into the valleys and plains. Also note that colors for directions are not the same as for the ancient
Egyptians. The only similar color is Red for East. Nephites likewise painted their buildings in red, just as
the Egyptians and other cultures of the Middle East. Both Jaredites
and Mulekites arrived in the area from the
east; Lehi's family came from the west via the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Nephi led his people north from the
Guatemalan coast and built a city at present day Guatemala City.
The Waters of Mormon was located at today's
Lake Atitlan, west of Nephi.
King Limhi sent a group of soldiers north along the
River Sidon in search of
Zarahemla. They followed the wrong
headwaters, missing Zarahemla and found ruins of Jaredite cities at Joshua, "Desolation" and the Tampico area.
Their route was along the Grijalva River rather than the Usumacinta or Chixoy (Sidon) River. Both headwaters are
within one mile of each other in the mountains of Guatemala.
There is a tradition in Chichén Itzá,
Yucatán Peninsula, that three special messengers led the people of
across the sea about 421 AD. They were the three translated Nephites, who led descendants of the Anti-Nephi-Lehites
to safety since they refused to fight in the last Lamanite-Nephite war.
Click here to view details of my interactive
Book of Mormon Map.
Electromagnetic and Gospel Spectrums:
Electromagnetic and Gospel Spectrums (Thai Version):
Plan of Life: English and Thai versions
Greater to Lesser Kingdoms:
Hugh Nibley's chart of Religious Outlook on Life:
1. DARK - DARK - DARK
2. DARK - DARK - LIGHT
(Standard Christianity and Judaism)
3. DARK - LIGHT - LIGHT
4. DARK - LIGHT - DARK
(Tao; Zen. Distraction, drugs, escapism, sports, success)
5. LIGHT - DARK - LIGHT
(Ancient Egypt; Hermetic Greeks)
6. LIGHT - DARK - DARK
(Romanticism; Wordsworth's poem about pre-earth life)
7. LIGHT - LIGHT - DARK
(Various American Indian tribes)
8. LIGHT - LIGHT - LIGHT
(Church and Gospel of Jesus Christ; Kingdom of God)
My interpretation of "Let your eye be single to the glory of God".
See Moses 1:39 also D&C 82:19 and 88:33
Focus on becoming perfect and live with God again, but not just to sing praises. As God said to Moses, His work
and glory is to help children progress to become like God. Joseph Smith Jr. clarified this concept in the
King Follett discourse.
God gains greater glory as Jesus advances in His footsteps. Likewise, each person contributes
to God's glory by progressing along the Gospel path. No one is diminished.
Consider the "Oath and Covenant" of the priesthood in D&C 84. This clearly states that everyone at the same level
in God's celestial kingdom share all that God has created. He views possessions differently from people on earth.
We see things as: This is mine; that is yours. His view is: This is ours. Tithing is
a lower law designed to teach us to share, in order that we can observe the higher law of consecration.
Another concept: The righteous are all people who are repenting. It does not matter whether or not they currently
are members of Christ's church. Likely they will become members after accepting the gospel in paradise.