The Kingdom of Mapungubwe (1075-1220 AD) flourished at a juncture of the Limpopo
and Shashe rivers, with a capital at
Mapungubwe. The people likely were
descendants from the Khoikhoi culture and migrated to the area
due to abundant herds of elephants.
The kingdom declined as Zimbabwe ascended.
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People from the Kingdom of Zimbabwe (1220-1450 AD) were part of the Shona culture. They migrated from
Mapungubwe and constructed Great Zimbabwe.
Its king eventually had over 150 tributaries that paid taxes. Another kingdom in the region was Buta
(1450-1683 AD), with a capital at Khami. It later became a tributary
state of Zimbabwe. The Rozwi Empire (capital at Danamombe) conquered Buta after the decline of Zimbabwe.
Circa 1430 AD, Prince Nyatsimba Mutota of Greater Zimbabwe sought salt-laden lands in the north.
He conquered a region that became the Kingdom of Mutapa
(aka Monomotapa). Greater Zimbabwe was abandoned and the kingdom fragmented into Mutapa (1450-1760 AD) Butua
centers of influence.