Circa 1800 BC, some Hyksos
("Rulers of Foreign Countries;" also incorrectly called "Shepherd Kings")
first appeared in Egypt, coming from Hayastan (the Armenian Highlands)
in western Asia. Reputed to be a Scythian tribe called Hucsos near
ancient Euxine (Black Sea).
An Egyptian stela recorded that Apophis
was a chief of Retjenu, ancient Egyptian name for Canaan.
In 1710 BC Khendjer
invaded the Nile Delta of lower
Egypt. The Hyksos were successful due to
superior tactics and weapons,
particularly the light horse-drawn chariot and
sickle-sword. In 1648 BC, King
Hyksos' control over northern Egypt and founded the 15th Dynasty. Conquered territory included the short-lived
Dynasty of Abydos and briefly that of Egyptian
Thebes in the south. Hyksos allies included
and Nubians of Kush. An Egyptian pharaoh in the south was
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It was during the Hyksos period that
Joseph was sold into slavery, but
eventually became second only to pharaoh. Jacob's
family received choice land in Goshen and earned enmity from true Egyptians. Goshen has been identified as
Wadi Tumilat (ancient area for
Canal of the Pharaohs). Joseph
reportedly supervised construction of the Bahr Yussef (Waterway of Joseph),
a canal which currently exists parallel to the Nile River.
Pharaoh Ahmose I, founder of the Egyptian 18th dynasty,
effectively used a newly constructed chariot corps to
defeat and expel the Hyksos
circa 1520 BC. He reportedly besieged their capital at Avaris
and bested them in chariot battle. Pharaoh
Khamose ousted the last Hyksos in 1550 BC. A female regent,
Ahhotep 1, also played an important role in ousting the Hyksos.
Modern archeologists found military tributes to this in her tomb.