CLASH WITH MAGNA GRAECIA:
Etruscan cities early gained wealth through commerce in copper and iron. They also clashed with
Magna Graecia. The Ionian Greek city-state of
Phocaea in modern Turkey
particularly caused the Etruscans to ally with Carthage.
The Phocaean colonies were located in Catalonia,
Corsica and at
Massalia. A turning point was the naval battle at
Alalia circa 540 or 535 BC. Carthage extended its
influence at the expense of the Greeks and Etruscans. Gauls invaded in the 4th century BC and seized
control over the northern Adriatic coast and
WARS WITH ROME:
Etruscan kings originally ruled in Rome.
In the 8th century BC, Rome's first king, Romulus, defeated
the Etruscan people of Fidenae. He also successfully defeated Etruscans at Veii.
Veii and other cities fought numerous wars with Rome during several centuries. In 509 BC, Romans deposed
the last Etruscan-born king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus.
The following year, King Lars Porsena of Clevsin (aka Clusium)
attacked Rome at Pons Sublicius (bridge over the Tiber river).
In 505 BC, Rome began a series of successful wars against the Sabines.
(Circa 750 BC, Romans reportedly seized Sabine Women.)
Rome proceeded to annex Etruscan city-states and completed such actions early in the 1st century BC.